The Geography and Geopolitics of Europe’s Fourth World

The term Fourth World is a generalisation for thousands of self-identifying nations, regions, and even city-states with territorial aspirations. Arguably such a broad-level categorisation is problematic as each group seeks different levels and types of self-determination and any ‘nation’ is a unique matrix of social, cultural and aspirational characteristics located in a particular time and place. Yet commonalities appear to exist across these unique matrices. The belief in a common culture tied to an historical but internationally unrecognized claim to territory and a common discourse about these claims is widely evident.

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